- Critical Language Awareness in the United States: Revisiting Issues and Revising Pedagogies in a Resegregated Society
- The Language Demands of School: Putting academic English to the test
- Language Issues: Readings for Teachers
- Translating Childhoods: Immigrant Youth, Language and Culture
- Recognizing different kinds of "head starts"
- Forbidden language: English learners and restrictive language policies
- The Construction of Moral and Social Identity in Immigrant Children's Narratives-in-translation
- He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children
- Re-mediating literacy: culture, difference, and learning for students from nondominant communities
- Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities
- Spanish-language Narration and Literacy: Culture, cognition, and emotion
- Language socialization: an historical overview
- Towards Expansive Learning: Examining Chicana/o and Latina/o Students’ Political-historical Knowledge
Critical Language Awareness in the United States: Revisiting Issues and Revising Pedagogies in a Resegregated Society
Author(s): H. Samy Alim
As scholars examine the successes and failures of more than 50 years of court-ordered desegregation since Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, and 25 years of language education of Black youth since Martin Luther King Elementary School Children v. Ann Arbor School District Board, this article revisits the key issues involved in those cases and urges educators and sociolinguists to work together to revise pedagogies. After reviewing what scholars have contributed, the author suggests the need for critical language awareness programs in the United States as one important way in which we can revise our pedagogies, not only to take the students’ language into account but also to account for the interconnectedness of language with the larger sociopolitical and sociohistorical phenomena that help to maintain unequal power relations in a still-segregated society.
Alim, H. S. (2005). Critical language awareness in the United States: revisiting issues and revising pedagogies in a resegregated society. Educational Researcher, 34(7), 24-31.
The Language Demands of School: Putting academic English to the test
Author(s): Alison Bailey, F. A. Butler, R. Stevens, and C. Lord
The Language Demands of School is an edited volume describing an extensive empirical base for academic English testing, instruction and professional development. The chapters comprise empirical research by Bailey and colleagues at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, Student Testing (CRESST) at UCLA, and invited contributions by practitioners in the fields of language policy, testing and instruction. The central focus of the chapters is the research conducted by CRESST over the last two years in an attempt to document the academic English language demands placed on school-age learners of English. The three additional chapters give the perspectives of a policy-maker at the state level, test developers, and practitioners.
The Language Demands of School addresses the kind(s) of English required of K-12 English Learner students from an evidence-based perspective. This is timely given the broader context of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which has prompted school systems to identify English language proficiency tests to meet the federal mandate. One of the problems that has surfaced in the search for English language tests for K-12 English Learner students is the inadequacy of existing research on the development of the academic English language skills that all students—both English Learner and native English-speaking—need to be successful in the school setting. The Language Demands of School is devoted to exploring this topic and to presenting research that illuminates both the questions and the answers.
Bailey, A. L. (Editor, 2007). The Language Demands of School: Putting academic English to the test. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Contributing Chapter: Bailey, A. L., Butler, F. A., Stevens, R., & Lord, C. Chapter 5. Further specifying the language demands of school. (pp. 103-156)
Language Issues: Readings for Teachers
Author(s): Diane B. Durkin
This book provides a collection of interrelated essays on language for teachers concerned with first and second language acquisition, non-standard English, the teaching of grammar, language change, and the attainment of literacy. A problem-oriented text, the book presents the various controversies surrounding each language area, offering competing disciplinary perspectives. Incorporating only the linguistic theory that has immediate classroom applicability, the book consolidates research, offers a nontechnical approach, and invites teachers to question common assumptions and practices concerning language.
Durkin, D. B. (1995). Language issues: readings for teachers. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman Publishers USA.
Translating Childhoods: Immigrant Youth, Language and Culture
Author(s): Marjorie Faulstich Orellana
Drawing from ethnographic data and a decade of research in three immigrant communities, this book examines the work that the children of immigrants do using their knowledge of two languages to speak, read, write, listen and do things for their families. The sample chapter looks at how this work plays out in parent-teacher conferences.
Chapter 5 appears with permission of the publisher, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey, © 2010. All rights reserved.
Chapter_5.pdf — PDF document, 285Kb
Recognizing different kinds of "head starts"
Author(s): Marjorie Faulstich Orellana and Jacqueline D'warte
The authors consider how the National Early Literacy Panel’s decision to focus on identifying precursors to “conventional” literacy skills shaped the questions asked, conclusions drawn, and take-home message of the panel’s 2008 report. They suggest that this approach may keep the field of literacy research from seeing and valuing other kinds of “head starts”—including ones that are better aligned with the broad, flexible, transcultural literacy skills that will be demanded in the future. The authors call on the field to learn from the experiences of children from nondominant groups to build a more comprehensive model of literacy development.
Orellana, M. F., & D'warte, J. (2010). Recognizing different kinds of "head starts". Educational Researcher, 39(4), 295-300.
Forbidden language: English learners and restrictive language policies
Author(s): Patricia C. Gandara and Megan Hopkins
Pulling together the most up-to-date research on the effects of restrictive language policies, this timely volume focuses on what we know about the actual outcomes for students and teachers in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts—states where these policies have been adopted. Prominent legal experts in bilingual education analyze these policies and specifically consider whether the new data undermine their legal viability. Other prominent contributors examine alternative policies and how these have fared. Finally, Patricia Gándara, Daniel Losen, and Gary Orfield suggest how better policies, that rely on empirical research, might be constructed.
This timely volume:
- Features contributions from well-known educators and scholars in bilingual education.
- Includes an overview of English learners in the United States and a brief history of the policies that have guided their instruction.
- Analyzes the current research on teaching English learners in order to determine the most effective instructional strategies.
Gandara, P., & Hopkins, M. (Eds.). (2010). Forbidden language: English learners and restrictive language policies. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
The Construction of Moral and Social Identity in Immigrant Children's Narratives-in-translation
Author(s): I. Garcia Sanchez and M. Orellana
In this article we examine the complexities of immigrant children’s role as translators and linguistic mediators between their parents and their teachers during parent-teacher conferences. In our analyses, we first examine the linguistic structure of teachers’ narratives about the children, and then look at how children construct their moral and social identities as students in their translations of these narratives, and how parents respond to their children’s translations.We found that in their translations children consistently downgraded their teachers’ praise and exaggerated their responsibility for any problems the teachers identified; parents in turn took up the problem focus and underscored children’s responsibility. Implications for the socialization of immigrant children and parents into educational institutional ideologies, as well as the impact of these practices on children’s development are discussed.
Garcia Sanchez, I., & Orellana, M. F. (2006). The construction of moral and social identity in immigrant children's narratives-in-translation. Linguistics and Education, 17(3), 209-239.
This paper was originally published in Linguistics and Education. The preprint manuscript version is included here with the permission of the authors. The original publication is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08985898
032MoralSocialPP023_R1.pdf — PDF document, 1066Kb
He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children
Author(s): Marjorie Harness Goodwin
This book describes how talk is used to build social organization within face-to-face interaction among a group of urban black children, an analysis providing the opportunity to study language, culture, and social organization from an integrated perspective. Children from a southwest Philadelphia neighborhood were tape-recorded during peer-group interactions for 16 months during 1970-1971. Their families were members of the working class and had helped to create an environment of security for their children by keeping gangs off their street. The children spoke Black English vernacular and they preferred to play outside with friends rather than inside with toys. Boys established differences among themselves while performing a task, a social organization that permeated other aspects of their peer activities. Girls, on the other hand, organized themselves in ways that reflected equality rather than differentiation and emphasized cooperation during task activities. Directives were examined in boys' and girls' task activities and in girls' pretend play as actions embedded within a larger field of social activity. The book also investigates how the children used argumentative talk to build their social world and how they used stories to restructure the social organization of the talk of the moment and to initiate larger social events. The appendixes include a list of the children who participated and examples of a ritual insult sequence, boys' dispute stories, and girls' instigating stories.
Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Re-mediating literacy: culture, difference, and learning for students from nondominant communities
Author(s): Kris Gutiérrez, P. Zitlali Morales, and Danny C. Martinez
In this chapter, the authors examine notions of educational risk in the context of literacy theories and research. Deficit notions about the cognitive potential of individuals from nondominant communities have persisted in social science inquiry, particularly where literacy is concerned. They trace the intellectual trails of current conflicting ideas about literacy in part to theories about the role of literacy in society.
Gutiérrez, K. D., Morales, P. Z., & Martinez, D. C. (2009). Re-mediating literacy: culture, difference, and learning for students from nondominant communities. Review of Research in Education, 33, 213-245.
This paper was originally published in Review of Research in Education, 33, 213-245. The preprint manuscript version is included here with the permission of the authors. The original publication is available at http://www.aera.net
033RemediatingLiteracyPP024_R1.pdf — PDF document, 252Kb
Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities
Author(s): Paul Kroskrity
In Regimes of Language, ten leading linguistic anthropologists integrate two often segregated domains: politics (without language) and language (without politics). Their essays contribute to an understanding of the role of language ideologies and discursive practices in state formation, nationalism, and the maintenance of ethnic groups, on the one hand, and in the creation of national, ethnic, and professional identities, on the other. Moving beyond a preoccupation with ideologies of cultural "others," the volume includes reflexive analyses of European language philosophy and historical linguistics, US academic ideologies of language, political discourses by US journalists and elite image advisors, and the impact of Christian missionaries on indigenous peoples in the Papua New Guinea highlands.
Kroskrity, P. V. (2000). Regimenting languages: Language ideological perspectives. In P. V. Kroskrity (Ed.), Regimes of language: ideologies, polities, and identity. Sante Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press.
Spanish-language Narration and Literacy: Culture, cognition, and emotion
Author(s): Allyssa McCabe and Alison Bailey
This book is divided into three main topical sections: (1) Parent-child construction of narrative, which focuses on aspects of the social interaction that facilitate oral narrative development in Spanish-speaking children; (2) Developing independent narration by Spanish-speaking children; and (3) Narrative links between Latino children's oral narration and their emergent literacy and other school achievements. Chapters address narration to and by Latino children aged six months to eleven years old and in low, middle, and upper socioeconomic groups. Nationalities of speakers include the following: Costa Rican, Dominican, Ecuadorian, Mexican, Peruvian, Puerto Rican, Venezuelan, and Spanish-English bilingual children who are citizens or residents of the United States. Narratives studied include those in conversations, personal and fictional stories, and those prompted by wordless picture books or videos. Thus, the current project includes diverse nationalities, socioeconomic backgrounds, and genres of narrative.
McCabe, A. K., Bailey, A.L., & Melzi. G. (Editors, 2008). Spanish-language Narration and Literacy: Culture, cognition, and emotion. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Contributing Chapter: Bailey, A. L., Moughamian, A. C., & Dingle, M. Chapter 12. The contribution of Spanish language narration to the assessment of early academic performance of Latino students. (pp. 296-331).
Language socialization: an historical overview
Author(s): Elinor Ochs and B. Schieffelin
Research in the area of language socialization initially considered the relation between language acquisition and socialization, which had been separated by disciplinary boundaries, psychology on the one hand and anthropology and sociology, on the other. Developmental psycholinguistic research focused (and continues to focus) upon phonological and grammatical competence of young children as individuals who are neurologically and psychologically endowed with the capacity to become linguistically competent speakers of a language along a developmental progression (Bloom, 1970; Brown et al., 1968; Slobin, 1969). Language acquisition research since the late 1960s has debated the source of linguistic competence as located either in innate structures, as the product of verbal input from the child’s environment, or some combination of both (Chomsky, 1965; Pinker, 1994; Snow, 1972,1995). Socialization research posed a set of complementary but independently pursued questions, primarily revolving around the necessity for children to acquire the culturally requisite skills for participating in society, including appropriate ways of acting, feeling, and thinking. In foundational anthropological studies of childhood and adolescence cross-culturally (e.g., LeVine et al., 1994; Mead, 1928; Whiting, Whiting, and Longabaugh, 1975) as well as in pre-1960s sociological theorizations of continuities and discontinuities in social order across generations, verbal resources generally were not investigated as a critical component of socialization processes (Mead, 1934; Parsons, 1951). As a result, the sociocultural nexus of children’s communicative development remained largely an uncharted academic territory, and the disciplines that addressed the paths of different types of knowledge acquisition—psycholinguistic and sociocultural—remained isolated from each other.
Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. (2008). Language socialization: an historical overview. In P. A. Duff & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language education (Vol. 8, pp. 3-15). New York: Springer.
Towards Expansive Learning: Examining Chicana/o and Latina/o Students’ Political-historical Knowledge
Author(s): Mariana Pacheco
This article examines how Chicana/o and Latina/o youth employed their political-historical knowledge to “talk back” to the xenophobia and political contradictions that underlie the (im)migration “debate.” A literacy unit that honed bilingual students’ everyday translating created opportunities for students to utilize this political-historical knowledge to “translate” their critiques to formal and informal audiences in their writing (e.g., the mayor vs. friends). Pacheco briefly overviews the unit and emphasizes the practices related to voice most relevant to her analysis of sixth-grade students’ essays about (im)migration and the plight of (im)migrants. This article demonstrates how students framed (im)migration, positioned themselves within the debate, positioned major political figures, drew on their historical knowledge, and appropriated community discourses of resistance. In many ways, these students already embodied the kinds of critical literacies and position-taking advocated by literacy researchers and educators. This article concludes with a discussion of how educators can draw strategically on students’ sociocultural knowledge, as well as their political-historical knowledge, in the service of expanding their critical literacies.
Pacheco, M. (2009). Towards expansive learning: Examining Chicana/o and Latina/o students' political-historical knowledge. Language Arts, 87(1), 18-29.
This paper was originally published in Language Arts, 87. The preprint manuscript version is included here with the permission of the authors. The original publication is available at Language Arts website.
030ExpansiveLearningPP021_R1.pdf — PDF document, 761Kb